Dr Stephen O’Grady:Flexor Tendon Flaccidity

Posted on February 13, 2020 by Jerrilee.
Categories: breed, handicap, health, hoofcare, therapy.

tendons

Flexor tendon flaccidity or tendon laxity is a relatively common limb deformity seen in newborn foals usually involving the hind limbs although all four limbs can be involved. Weak flexor tendons is thought to be the cause which results in digital hyperextension where weight-bearing is placed on the palmar/plantar aspect of the proximal phalanges and the toe of the hoof is raised off the ground. The condition often tends to self-correct within days after birth as the foal gains strength and is allowed moderate exercise. However the tendon laxity often persists and it is not uncommon to see a fool that still has digital hyper-extension at 4 weeks of age.

Treatment is sequential depending on the severity of the tendon laxity and the response of the foal to treatment. Therapy begins with controlled exercise allowing the foal access to a small area with firm footing for 1 hour three times daily, the toe of the foot can be shortened and the heels can be rasped gently from the middle of the foot palmarly/plantarly to create ground surface and a palmar/plantar extension can be applied if necessary. This extension which extends approximately 3-4 centimeters beyond the bulbs of the heels immediately relieves the biomechanical instability. A cuff-type extension shoe is commercially available or a small aluminum plate extension with clips. In either case, the author feels that either type of extension should be attached with adhesive tape rather than a composite if the foal is less than 3 weeks of age as this avoids excessive heat being applied to the fragile hoof capsule as the composite cures and prevents contracture of the hoof capsule at the heels. Regardless of the method of application, the extensions should be changed at 10 day intervals. Bandaging the limb is contraindicated as this will further weaken the flexor tendons.

Photo: uncorrected adult legs in 7 year old mare

Angular limb and deformities are common limb abnormalities in foals that require early recognition and treatment. The pathogenesis of this problem is not clearly understood. Angular limb deformities can be classified as either congenital or acquired in the first few weeks of life. The primary lesion is an imbalance of physeal growth; for various reasons, growth proceeds faster on one side of the physis.

Horses Never Forget Human Friends

Posted on January 17, 2020 by Jerrilee.
Categories: health, history, therapy, training.

sonja rasche
article by Jennifer Viegas
Human friends may come and go, but a horse could be one of your most loyal, long-term buddies if you treat it right, suggests a new study. Horses also understand words better than expected, according to the research, and possess “excellent memories,” allowing horses to not only recall their human friends after periods of separation, but also to remember complex, problem-solving strategies for ten years or more.

The bond with humans likely is an extension of horse behavior in the wild, since horses value their own horse relatives and friends, and are also open to new, non-threatening acquaintances.
“Horses maintain long-term bonds with several members of their family group, but they also interact temporarily with members of other groups when forming herds,” explained Carol Sankey, who led the research, and her team. “Equid social relationships are long-lasting and, in some cases, lifelong,” added the scientists, whose paper has been accepted for publication in the journal Animal Behavior. Ethologist Sankey of the University of Rennes and her colleagues studied 20 Anglo-Arabian and three French Saddlebred horses stabled in Chamberet, France. The scientists tested how well the horses remembered a female trainer and her instructions after she and the horses had been separated up to eight months.
Since “horses are able to learn and memorize human words” and can hear the human voice better than even dogs can, due to their particular range of hearing, the scientists predict trainers could have success if they incorporate more vocal commands into their horse training programs.

Jill Starr is president and founder of Lifesavers Wild Horse Rescue, a non-profit that provides refuge, training and adoption placement for otherwise slaughter-bound wild mustangs and domestic horses.
Starr told Discovery News that she’s observed horses responding well to verbal commands, such as “trot,” but she still feels “horses and people get along better if the person doesn’t chatter, since this causes the individual to have greater awareness of body language that is more familiar to horses.”
She, however, agrees that horses are loyal, intelligent and have very long-lasting memories — of both good and bad experiences.
Starr said, “Horses can be very forgiving, but they never forget.”

What Dewormer Works Best? Part 1

Posted on December 10, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: health, history, therapy.

Article Written by Donald H Bliss, Ph.D  midamericaagresearch.net

Equine Dewormers:
Equine dewormers currently on the market in the USA can be classified into three separate classes of compounds based on the mode of action.
These three major classes are: the benzimidazoles and pre-benzimidazoles (febantel, fenbendazole, oxibendazole, mebendazole and oxfendazole), the macrocyclic lactones (avermectin and moxidectin families), and the tetrahyo-pyrimidines (pyrantel). The mode of action is different for each class of compounds. The benzimidizoles are non-soluble compounds that destroy the metabolism of the parasites by interfering with the cell functions in the parasites and by preventing the uptake of food thus starving the worms to death. The macrocyclic lactones are very soluble compounds and affect the nervous system killing the parasites causing a non-spastic paralysis while the pyrimidines kill the parasites by acting on the nervous receptors causing a spastic paralysis.
All three classes of compound have excellent efficacy against the adult parasites, but each dewormer class has a defined mode of action with a different level of activity against various developing and encysted larvae. The time it takes for larvae missed by treatment to develop into an adult parasite following treatment depends upon what larval stage the product is efficacious against. It takes longer for late L3 larvae to develop into an adult parasite than it will for late L4 larva. This difference can be measured in the time it takes for worm eggs to reappear in the feces following treatment. The longer it takes for eggs to reappear the more effective the product is against both the developing and encysted larvae.
Using products correctly and understanding their characteristics can help keep all classes of products viable. Fenbendazole, for example, is an excellent product when used in a strategic deworming schedule. However, if parasite contamination is allowed to develop in the environment and parasite levels increases in the animals until a high population of encysted larvae are present in high numbers, the efficacy of fenbendazole at the recommended dose is drastically reduced.
Two key issues have been identified with fenbendazole that can affect its efficacy. The first issue is that this compound is not very soluble in liquids such as gastric juices or blood. The second issue is that it kills the parasite by destroying it’s ability to metabolize food. Encysted larvae are in an arrested state with reduced metabolism and reduced absorption of nutrients. Because of fenbendazole’s low solubility and reduced metabolism of the encysted larvae, the product needs direct physical contact to kill these encysted parasites. When fenbendazole is given at 10 times the recommended dose spread over a five-day period it is successful against both developing and encysted larvae (10 mg/kg given daily for five days). By flooding the astrointestinal tract with molecules of fenbendazole, direct contact is made with the encysted larvae successfully killing them.

Equine Parasite Control Part 2

Posted on December 8, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: health, history, therapy.

Dr Donald Bliss of midamericaagresearch.net has published a revealing study regarding de-worming resistance in equines. His facts point out that actual cases of such resistance are very rare and that the appearance of  such resistance is usually the result of existing parasites and their eggs never fully being destroyed. To determine if your horse has resistance to current dewormers, Dr Bliss advises to first implement an active parasite control program that results in ending the egg-to-worm cycle in both the host (horse) and the paddocks and pastures.  The following is his initial program proven effective in stopping the parasite cycle in horses:

“Phase I:  To begin the program, all horses should be parasite-free throughout the winter months and prior to the start of the transmission season in the spring. This includes making sure all animals are free from harboring encysted larvae acquired during the previous grazing season. The goal has multiple benefits, the first is to make sure the animals are free from harmful parasitism during the winter months, the second, is to make sure the animals are not shedding worm eggs at the beginning of the grazing season in the spring and, the third, is to make sure all mares are parasite-free at the time of foaling. The last treatment of the season should take place after the transmission season is over, preferably in December. If post-treatment fecal exams indicate infections are still present after the December treatment, repeated treatment may be necessary including the use of the larvicidal dose of fenbendazole (10mg/kg daily for 5 days). All horses that are heavily parasitized (when fecal worm egg counts are over 300 eggs/3 gm sample) or horses that have not been dewormed on a regular basis should be dewormed with a larvicidal of fenbendazole to remove inhibited larval stages before starting the program.  When fenbendazole is given at 10 times the recommended dose spread over a five-day period it is successful against both developing and encysted larvae (10 mg/kg given daily for five days). By flooding the astrointestinal tract with molecules of fenbendazole, direct contact is made with the encysted larvae successfully killing them.

Phase II: Strategic Timed Spring Dewormings: In the horse, treatment should be timed with the seasonal parasite life cycle on pasture where parasite development in the environment in most parts of the country is the greatest in the spring and the fall.  To reduce the overall parasite contamination of the environment, three spring dewormings should be given one month apart in the spring and again in the fall.  If the animals are parasite-free at the beginning of the spring season, the first treatment should be given approximately 30-days after the start of spring grazing. The repeated treatment works because as animals pick up infective larvae which have over-wintered on the pasture in early spring, these larvae are killed with the first treatment before they can mature and begin laying eggs back in the environment of the horse. The horses continue to pick up more larvae, which are killed by the second and then the third treatment before they can shed eggs again.  By preventing eggs from being shed for the first three to four months in the beginning of the grazing season significantly reduces parasite contamination for the next three months. With horses, three strategically timed dewormings given one month apart will provide approximately six months of safe grazing. The key to the success of this program is that the horses must be free of parasites at the start of the season so that the repeated treatments are simply removing the parasites picked up during each thirty day interval. If the treatments are successful no worm egg will be shed on the pasture for approximately 120 days, i.e., (1) clean to start, (2) three thirty-day treatments which provides 90 days without shedding and (3) another thirty days past the last treatment before mature worms can be present laying eggs into the environment.
Strategic timed deworming treatment should be given three times in the spring and fall one month apart as shown. The class of dewormer used can be interchanged as desired. The last treatment should be given in late November or early December and may include both bot and tapeworm treatment if needed. Each “three-treatment strategically timed regime” provides approximately six months of control thus the spring treatment protects the horses until fall and the fall regime protects the horses until spring. These repeated treatments also help remove encysted larvae which may have survived in the horse through the winter months while preventing more from establishing throughout the entire grazing season by reducing the overall build-up of infective larvae in the environment of the treated animals.

Pasture Control:  Parasites can survive winter or hot summer conditions either as adult, inhibited larvae or infective larvae in the environment. The adult parasite within the horse have a finite life span, however, as the older parasites die off they are replenished by the larvae, new incoming larvae, or larvae that have emerged from the gut wall (in the case of the small strongyles), from the lungs (in the case of roundworms), and from the mesentery arteries (in the case of Strongylus vulgaris). Infected horses then re-seed the pastures with parasite eggs which develop into infective larvae contaminating spring pastures. Animals that enter the spring months harboring parasites begin shedding worm eggs immediately while those which begin the spring season parasite free will not re-contaminate their environment until a new infection has developed from newly acquired infection off spring pastures. As temperatures increase with spring developing, these eggs hatch and develop into infective larvae. The eggs that have been lying in the environment waiting for warm moist weather, many of these eggs will develop around the same time depending upon the weather causing high levels of contamination to occur once.  Pastures not grazed by horses from the beginning of the spring season for at least three months will become “parasite safe” pastures since the over-wintered larvae will have expired by this time and no new worm eggs have been released on the pastures. Any animals moving to “parasite safe” pastures should be dewormed prior to moving.
Treating horses strategically to prevent shedding eggs during the first three months of the season will accomplish the same goal and the existing larvae will disappear by late June or early July and the pastures will be safe from parasites until fall.”

Mark Russell’s “En”-lightening Approach

Posted on October 16, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: equipment, riding, therapy, training.

“..elicit a calm thoughtful movement from the horse..”

While he is no longer with us to teach in person, Author and Horse trainer Mark Russell continues to explain the value of suppling the horse before and during the riding session in his book, “Lessons in Lightness”, available through his website. The book delves into the bio-mechanics of both saddle and ground work with engaging additions of his own personal life lessons that helped to shape his riding talent.   His web site: naturaldressage.com still provides insights through his articles. Here is an excerpt of one that was published in PRE Magazine:

The Pursuit of Artful Riding  (by Mark Russell)


author demonstrating: Lessons in Lightness

Artistry and lightness in riding is often an elusive goal for riders although paving the path to its development is really very simple. The integration of a few basic principles and adherence to them throughout the training process will create a scenario in which responsiveness and lightness will flourish.  The Reality We Present to the Horse is the Reality That He Lives In.. One of Natural Horsemanship’s most significant contributions to the development of the horse is its approach to the training process from the perspective of the horse. This includes an understanding of who our horse is and how he learns: qualities to which we temper our approach. The horse learns from us every moment we are with him and each of his behaviors, no matter how subtle, reflects a message he is sending us.  Importantly, this process includes mindfulness of ourselves: where we are emotionally, what information we are sending the horse through the reins and through our seat. There is a continuous back and forth conversation between us and our horses every moment we are with him whether intentional or not.

Artistic dressage forsakes force. A horse that has been brought down the path of learning in his comfort zone will easily learn balance without brace. Channels of energy will be opened in the relaxed horse which the rider can then direct. Once the basic principles become a staple in the horse’s training we can begin to advance the concept of relaxation through releases of the jaw, poll, neck, through the back and hind end of the horse. Flexion, impulsion, balance, and freedom of movement will thus come easily. An attentive and conversant rider creates a scenario where their requests can comfortably be followed by the horse. The outcome will be a horse who will be able to express free flowing energy and movement which is a pleasure to ride and beautiful to watch.

You can read the entire article at: Mark Russell Dressage

 

 

 

Dangerous Horse at Mealtime?

Posted on September 30, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: health, history, therapy, training.

Some horses are a threat to both people and other horses at mealtime. Behavior disorders that you may see displayed range from pinning ears back and shaking heads to an all out assault as shown in the statue in the photo above. Animals who cannot be trusted are a serious menace to others around them. If they cannot be rehabilitated quickly, they may end up euthanized. Of course, the larger the animal with dangerous behavior, the more quickly the decision to remove it must be made.

Training methods for correcting defensive eaters abound on the internet.For an intelligent and humane approach we recommend the article: “Re-training the Defensive Eater“.  You can also visit our Equi-TV page for some great training videos this month.

Dorsal Wall Lifting

Posted on September 20, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: handicap, health, history, hoofcare, therapy.

Theory of laminitis explained

(exerpts from: equinehoof.co.uk)

The easiest way to explain this new model for laminitis is to look at the hoof as a simplified structure, broken down to its basic components, this enables an easier understanding of what is happening.

Fig 1: Normal hoof section growth

Fig 1: Normal hoof section growth
Fig 2: Chronic laminitis hoof section growth

Fig 2: Chronic laminitis hoof section growth

To examine the effects of normal and laminitic hoof growth, a flat rectangle of hoof can be used to represent a section of hoof (Fig. 1), as new horn is produced in equal amounts on each side of the rectangle, the hoof section grows without distortion.

When laminitic hoof growth is examined in the same way, one side of the hoof is growing faster than the other, horn produced under these conditions will grow in a curved or distorted manner (Fig. 2), the lower extremity of the horn will be deflected forward.

By increasing the complexity of the model to a simple hoof capsule consisting of three sides, a front or dorsal wall and two sides that represent the medial and lateral quarters, we now have an approximation to a hoof capsule.

In the normal simplified hoof the dorsal and quarter areas are growing at similar rates and the hoof grows down in a consistent way (Fig. 3).

Fig 3: Normal hoof capsule growth

Fig 3: Normal hoof capsule growth
Fig 4: Chronic laminitic hoof capsule growth

Fig 4: Chronic laminitic hoof capsule growth

In the laminitic foot the quarter areas are growing faster than the dorsal wall and the hoof grows in a curved manner to accommodate this difference (Fig. 4). The dorsal wall now has a dished dorsal surface, caused by the curved shape of the medial and lateral walls deflecting the dorsal hoof wall forward.

A revised interpretation of acute Laminitis

It is proposed that when a horse encounters a systemic disease that is known to cause laminitis, one of the first events will be an increase in rate of growth at the quarters (Fig. 8).

Fig 8: Simple acute laminitic hoof capsule model

Fig 8: Simple acute laminitic hoof capsule model

This increase in heel growth does not initially cause pain but eventually after a period of time, which may be hours or several days, the hoof capsule will distort beyond the limit that can be tolerated by the laminae. The distorting hoof capsule will then traumatise the laminae and tissues that are situated between the hoof and distal phalanx (pedal bone). In the early stages, any hoof distortion may not be obvious to the naked eye but at a laminar level it will cause pain. (Fig. 9).

Fig 9: Acute laminitis hoof capsule growth

Fig 9: Acute laminitis hoof capsule growth

This delay between the triggering event and the onset of pain is consistent with a developmental or pre-acute phase of laminitis, while the trauma induced in the sensitive tissues will cause the symptoms that have previously been identified as a vascular crisis.

In the early stages of the acute phase, distortion will be concentrated at the distal border of the dorsal hoof wall. As the heels continue to grow the dorsal wall will be elevated away from the distal phalanx in a peeling motion as the distortion migrates up the dorsal wall (Fig.10 – Arrow B). Peeling provides a better explanation for the separation observed between the distal phalanx (pedal bone) and the dorsal hoof wall, it is the most efficient method of mechanically separating two strongly bonded surfaces and requires less force, peeling would also be very painful. When the peeling process has separated enough laminar attachment, the distal phalanx will be detached from the dorsal hoof wall.

As the distal dorsal wall is lifted, the solar horny plate will be pulled upward towards the distal border of the distal phalanx. This upward movement of the horny sole will compress the solar corium, causing pain within the solar corium and compromise blood flow by entrapment (Fig. 10 – Arrow C). Bruising is often subsequently seen in this area of the sole after laminitis and is evidence of this trauma to the solar corium.

As the distal dorsal wall is lifted, the proximal border of the dorsal hoof wall will be pressing inward, again causing pain and compromising blood flow (Fig. 10 – Arrow A). Horn growth at the proximal border of the dorsal hoof wall is often restricted in severest forms of acute laminitis.

Fig 10: Acute phase - Hoof distortion

Fig 10: Acute phase – Hoof distortion
By including the hoof capsule in a causal role in laminitis, the qualities of the hoof can be seen as influencing the intensity of pain felt by the laminitic animal. The level of pain experienced during the initial phases of acute laminitis can be correlated to the shape and strength of the hoof capsule. In round feet, hoof distortion will spread from the toe medially and laterally towards each heel, causing the whole hoof to expand open, this will predispose the distal phalanx to sinking as a greater area of laminar attachment is lost. Long narrow hoof capsule shapes will tend to predispose the foot to rotation as most of the distortion will be concentrated at the toe of the hoof.

This new interpretation of laminitis is still in it’s formative stages, it is hoped that further research will be directed toward confirming that this model is a more accurate account of the changes seen in the feet of equines suffering with laminitis. Time will show how accurate this proposed model is. Whatever the outcome of this research, we must continue to look for ways to help the laminitic equine.

Trimming the Laminitic Hoof

Posted on September 19, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: breed, health, hoofcare, therapy.

laminitis effect on hoof

Crucial information from: johnthevet.co.uk

Remember that when the clinical signs of laminitis are seen, separation of the laminae is already occurring.
• Prompt attention to your horse is imperative to try to minimize these changes.
• If your horse develops laminitis contact your vet.
• If the horse will pick up its feet easily, apply frog supports.
• Walking the horse is contra-indicated but may be necessary to remove the horse from the cause of the laminitis e.g. from pasture.
• In this case it may be safe to walk the horse a short distance, with frog supports on, if it can walk relatively easily.
• If the horse is very reluctant to walk, wait for your vet’s arrival.
• It may be necessary to box your horse back to the stable.
• Stable the horse on a deep bed so that it is happy to lie down if it wants to.

When deciding on what angle the feet are trimmed, the question that we have to consider is whether the pull of the deep flexor tendon is of more significance than the effect of the weight of the horse on a tilted pedal bone.
It would appear that most are agreed that the aim [of the trim] is to establish weight bearing “along the entire solar surface” (O’Grady), or to “all parts of the hoof capsule” (Strasser) and that this is brought about by trimming the foot with a P3 solar surface that is parallel to the ground.

If we trim the feet with a ground-parallel pedal bone:
As weight is applied down the leg, the load is spread more evenly around all the laminae rather than particularly down the dorsal wall.
It will also reduce the pressure applied by P3 on the solar corium at the toe.

This will hopefully reduce the pain in the feet and with it the reflex contracture of the deep flexor muscle and thus reducing the tension in the deep flexor tendon. (I now advise massage of the deep flexor muscle following trimming of the heels).
There should be less pressure applied by the extensor process of a rotated P3 on the coronary papillae of the dorsal hoof wall and this should allow more even growth of the hoof.
laminitis
There will be a more even pressure around the whole of the coronet and this will mean that new horn growth is more likely to grow down parallel to the dorsal surface of P3 allowing the basement membrane that has not been irrevocably damaged to bind, as best it can, the epidermal and dermal laminae together providing a stronger and more stable foot.
Chronic founder cases are unlikely, certainly initially, to be involved in great athletic activity, but when there is sufficient new hoof growth and stability is achieved we can then trim the foot to a more “normal” angle.

However, if we lower the heel we will have a toe that is “long”, particularly if there is already distortion of the dorsal hoof wall. It is imperative that the toe is taken back sufficiently to allow easy break-over and thus avoid any pulling on the weakened laminae by the dorsal wall otherwise it will be pulled away from the bone.

If we leave P3 rotated:

  1. The centre of mass is moved posteriorly, thus putting more weight down the dorsal wall and pressure on the solar corium.
  2. There is likely to be more distortion of the coronary papillae of the dorsal hoof wall.
  3. This will, in turn, result in slower growth of horn at the toe compared to the heel.

Coffin Bone Remodeling

Posted on September 14, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: handicap, health, history, hoofcare, therapy.

Healthy Hoof Interior

New information regarding the changes in the coffin bone of the hoof have been released. The Fischer Equine Lameness Group have provided their in depth results into the remodeling of bone in the hoof during the time it remains shod. This information is a must for all horse owners!
From the “Heal the Hoof” web site: Sheri and her husband Mark, an orthopedic surgeon, fly internationally and present lectures on Wolfs Law of Orthopedics and how this affects the equine distal limb.  Their presentations have been given in Europe and throughout the US.  Recently, Sheri has lectured to the veterinarian students at the University of Minnesota and several veterinarian clinics throughout the US.

“Bone Remodeling of the Equine Distal Limb”
(We strongly recommend reading the complete article)

Excerpts from their article:   Wolfe’s law refers to how bone adapts itself to a variety of influences. Bones can remodel in a generalized fashion – that is, affecting the whole bone, or even the whole skeleton; or they can remodel in a very specific fashion in response to a local influence. It is important to remember that bone remodeling is a balance, and many factors can influence the balance, so that the net effect is either bone gain or bone loss. Most of the clinical situations we encounter in both human and equine situations involve bone loss to an extent to which problems occur.  According to Wolfe’s Law, failure to stress and stimulate bone by the mechanical forces generated by weight-bearing and muscles results in the activation of osteoclasts, leading to generalized loss of bone content and ultimately strength. The importance of exercise with respect to bone strength is well known in many human studies. This would suggest that any program which includes any significant amount of stall rest would promote the loss of bone. In a similar manner that cast treatment or immobilization can protect bone from stress, resulting in bone loss, application of a mechanical stress-sharing (i.e., aiding the bone in bearing a stress) device to bone can have the same effect. An example of this would be the use of horseshoes. An example of altered hoof weight bearing stresses affecting bone would be a deformation of the hoof capsule resulting from the horseshoe. The horseshoe puts direct pressure on the sides of the hoof, causing contraction and then bone loss due to altered stresses. Removal of shoes, depending on the timing as well as other influences, may allow the coffin bone to remodel. It seems obvious, however, that promoting a situation which several million years of evolution adapted the coffin bone for – that is, not applying horseshoes and keeping the coffin bone ground parallel within the hoof capsule – would make the most biological sense. In other words, never putting shoes on the horse, and keeping the coffin bone ground parallel for even distribution of stress along the edges of the coffin bone, would make the most sense for the bone according to the arguments advanced in this report.

In most cases, bone loss is recoverable once the conditions are changed to promote physiologic stress on the bone and to allow for the inflow of nutrients.

Hoof Deviation Terms

Posted on September 6, 2019 by Jerrilee.
Categories: handicap, health, history, hoofcare, therapy.

 

coffin bone dropping into sole

coffin bone dropping into sole

The above x-rays indicate the horse’s struggle for soundness when the coffin bone is affected.
Many readers have asked for more information regarding the terms used for hoof deviations.
The following should help:
Rotation of coffin bone: the coffin bone (P3) of the horse has dropped downward toward the interior bottom (sole) of the hoof. This means it has separated from the flesh (laminae) that hold it to the toe wall. In extreme cases the sharp point of the bone can fall far enough to cut through the sole of the hoof. The bone is still connected to the interior laminae on the sides, or quarters, of the hoof. Most cases can be fixed through correct trimming and hoof boots.
Sinking of the coffin bone: the coffin bone is completely detached from all the laminae of the hoof wall. The coffin bone rests on the interior sole of the hoof. Correct trimming and boots ease this problem but I have no documentation of a full correction yet.
White Line Separation: the flesh (laminae) are in process of separating from the coffin bone. Again, fixed through correct trimming.
Flaring: in most cases,the laminae have finally separated from the coffin bone resulting in rotation, or dropping, of the toe portion of the coffin bone. Oftentimes flaring and white line are used synonymously though there is a difference.
Mechanical Founder/Road Founderof the hoof: This is the term used for sinker & rotation of coffin bone which came about due to hard ground,shoeing,or the daily wear of a long toe that eventually separates the wall from the coffin bone.
Laminitis Founder:the laminae (flesh holding the coffin bone to the hoof wall) become inflamed and dropped their attachment to the coffin bone. The source of the inflammation must be determined to stop the founder in this case. Typically the cause is the diet and the shoeing of the horse; other causes include recent trauma,squalor conditions,abusive handling.
To understand in depth the care and trim required for Founder read Marjorie Smith’s full explanation.

equi-works

equi-works